GLOBAL CHANGE: Enough Water for All? - Content

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Foreword by Prof. Dr. Klaus Töpfer

Preface by the editors

List of authors and experts

The water probem of our Earth: From climate and the water cycle to the human right for water

(J. L. Lozán, H. Graßl, P. Hupfer, L. Menzel, E. Raschke & Ch.-D. Schönwiese)

1 ESSENTIAL FOR LIFE - WATER IN VIEW OF NATURAL SCIENCES

1.1 Water as the basis of life (J. L. Lozán, S. Meyer & L. Karbe)

1.2 The physico-chemical properties of water and their relevance for life (B. C. Gordalla, M. B. Müller & F. H. Frimmel)

1.3 Hydrological cycle and water balance – A global survey (J. Marcinek)

1.4 Ocean and cryosphere and their effects on the global water budget and the climate (P. Hupfer &. A. Helbig)

1.5 Distribution and transport of water in the atmosphere (M. Quante)

1.6 Mountain glaciers and water supply (H. Escher-Vetter)

1.7 Natural surface waters as sources of freshwater - A way out of the global water crisis? (M. M. Tilzer)

1.8 Fossil and young groundwater as components of the hydrological cycle (C. Kohfahl, G. Massmann & A. Pekdeger)

1.9 Water balance of forested catchments (V. Goldberg & Ch. Bernhofer)

1.10 Water and its use in early history (H. Fahlbusch)

1.11 Water disasters: A historical review (M. Börngen)

2 WATER USE and HUMAN IMPACTS ON THE WATER BUDGET

2.1 Surface waters under stress factors (R. Koschel, H. Behrendt & M. Hupfer)

2.2 Water demand and water use in the domestic and industrial sectors – An overview (U. Scheele & S. Malz)

2.3 Water demand in agriculture (F.-M. Chmielewski)

2.4 Irrigation water use – A global perspective (S. Siebert & P. Döll)

2.5 Water as a means of transport (H. Heyer & J. Stamm)

2.6 Dams – structures and functions – on a global scale (K. D. Aurada & R. Rödel)

2.7 The importance of reservoirs for water supply and power generation - An overview (F. Nestmann & C. Stelzer)

2.8 Chemical contaminaten of concern for drinking water (J. Fawell)

2.9 State and pollution of freshwater ecosystems – Warning signals of a changing environment (M. Hupfer & A. Kleeberg)

2.10 Salinisation of inland waters (H. Zimmermann-Timm)

2.11 Groundwater salinisation (S. Martens & K. Wichmann)

2.12 What will be the future of the Aral Sea? (S.-W. Breckle & W. Wucherer)

2.13 Hygiene requirements for recreational water (coastal and freshwater, swimming pools and spas) (I. Feuerpfeil & J. M. Lopez-Pila)

2.14 Drinking water quality: Requirements claimed by national and international standards (H. Bartel)

3 WATER AND CLIMATE CHANGE

3.1 Changes in the water cycle

3.1.1 Global water cycle and climate change – Interactions (S. J. Lorenz, D. Kasang & G. Lohmann)

3.1.2 The global precipitation pattern and its changes in the 20th century (L. Jaeger)

3.1.3 Intensification of the hydrological cycle – An important signal of climate change (D. Jacob & S. Hagemann)

3.1.4 Groundwater and climate change (S. Vassolo)

3.1.5 Changing river discharges (A. Bronstert & H. Engel)

3.1.6 Variability of European precipitation within industrial time (C.-D. Schönwiese, S. Trömel & R. Janoschitz)

3.1.7 Precipitation trends and shifts of rainfall regimes in Africa since 1951 (Ch. Beck & J. Grieser)

3.1.8 Mediterranean rainfall changes and their causes (J. Jacobeit, A. Dünkeloh & E. Hertig)

3.1.9 Assessment of global scale water stress indicators (M. Flörke & J. Alcamo)

3.1.10 Brandenburg: A region in Germany suffering from water deficit – In spite of its numerous lakes (M. Stock & W. Lahmer)

3.1.11 Change of regional extremes (D. Kasang & F. Kaspar)

3.1.12 Sea level rise and hydrological problems of coastal zones (B. Schuchardt, M. Schirmer & H. Sterr)

3.1.13 Caspian Sea level fluctuations as a consequence of regional climatic change (G. N. Panin)

3.2 Possible consequences

3.2.1 Accelerated desertification (R. Baumhauer)

3.2.2 Biodiversity and desertification (M. Akhtar-Schuster, U. Schmiedel & N. Jürgens)

3.2.3 The significance of climate change for water-related diseases (Th. Kistemann, A. Wieland & M. Exner)

3.2.4 Climate-related effects on water quality (Th. Blenckner)

3.2.5 The aesthetics and acceptability of reused water (H. H. Dieter & R. Schmidt)

3.2.6 Water scarcity and violent conflict (Chr. Fröhlich & U. Ratsch)

3.2.7 The emerging conflict of using Nile water for irrigation purposes, especially between Egypt and Ethiopia, due to the disturbance of the reliability of the arrival of the Monsoon season as triggered by European/Asian brown cloud (H.-J. Luhmann)

3.2.8 Present and future problems of water in developing countries (F. Brugger)

3.2.9 Global change and extreme hydrological conditions – Floods and droughts (L. Menzel & Z. Kundzewicz)

3.2.10 Irrigation induced soil salinisation in the Yanqi Basin, China-modelling approaches and possible solutions (P. Brunner, X. Dong, W. Li & W. Kinzelbach)

3.2.11 Potential impacts of water scarcity on the world economy (S. Peterson & G. Klepper)

3.2.12 Flood disasters and climate change: Trends and options – A (re-)insurer's view (W. Kron & G. Berz)

4 WHAT SHOULD BE DONE?

4.1 Measures for climate protection (H. Graßl)

4.2 Desalination of seawater (S. Lattemann & Th. Höpner)

4.3 Water saving: Measures, concepts and technologies in the urban, industrial and in the agricultural sector(U. Scheele & S. Malz)

4.4 Two examples towards the efficient and sustainable manage­ment of scarce water resources in Northwest and West Africa (M. Christoph, P. Speth, M. Bollig, J. Burkhardt, B. Diekkrüger, G. Menz, M. Rössler & W. Schug)

4.5 Sustainable water resources management in arid and semi-arid regions (W. Kinzelbach, P. Bauer & T. Siegfried)

4.6 Ecological sanitation: Innovative sanitation systems for urban and peri-urban areas, high- and low-tech options with resources recovery (R. Otterpohl & M. Oldenburg)

4.7 Strategies to combat floods and droughts (L. Menzel & Z. Kundzewicz)

4.8 More food with less water: The role of efficiency gains, lifestyles, and trade (H. Lotze-Campen & M. Welp)

4.9 Water conserving plants for agriculture in arid and semi-arid areas (S.-W. Breckle & M. Küppers)

4.10 Responsible water use – The example of BASF AG Ludwigshafen (E. Völker, G. Zimmer & B. Elendt-Schneider)

4.11 Elements of care in water management – Gender dimensions for sustainable water use (B. Knothe)

4.12 Evolution and milestones of global freshwater policy (B. Pilardeaux)

4.13 Water related conflicts – and the need for a global water strategy (U. E. Simonis)

4.14 The fight for water – To whom belong the water resources? (N. Geiler)

4.15 Water – Public good or trade commodity? (K. Lanz)

4.16 Privatisation: Key to the solution of the global water crises? (I. Spiller)

4.17 How do we guarantee the human right: Sufficient water for all? (R. Bär & F. Kürschner-Pelkmann)

4.18 Experience with the privatisation of water sectors in England and Bolivia with remarks about other countries (F. Kürschner-Pelkmann, K. Lanz & J. L. Lozán)

5 GLOSSARY

6 LITERATURE

7 INDEX

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